dump truck (or in the UK call it a Dumper truck) is a device used to move
material from a medium to long distance (500 m or more). The load is filled by
the loading device, while for the unloading the tool works alone. These materials
include coal, clay, sand, split stone, nickel, iron ore and even garbage.
A dump truck has a distinctive feature equipped
with a hydraulic helper device mounted under the dump truck in a sleeping
position with a hinged rear, the front of the lift tub allows the contents
carried in the dump truck easily to be lowered behind the truck at the delivery
location. In the UK and Australia the term applies only to off road and
construction work only, and while on the road these vehicles are known as
tipper, tipper truck (UK) and tip truck (Australia).
The dump truck was first introduced in Saint John,
New Brunswick when Robert T. Mawhinney installed a dump box on a flatbed truck
in 1920. The lifting device was a winch connected by cables and pulleys mounted
on pole behind the truck cabin. The cable is connected to the bottom front end
of the dump truck box which is attached by a pivot at the rear of the truck
cabin. The operator moves the crank to raise and lower the box. Today, almost
all dump trucks are operated by hydraulics that are installed in various
configurations, each designed to accomplish a specific task.